By AMY E. KRAMBECK, MD
With the exceptions of pediatrics and obstetrics/gynecology, women make up fewer than half of all medical specialists. Representation is lowest in orthopedics (8%), followed by my own specialty, urology (12%). I can testify that the numbers are changing in urology – women are up from just 8% in 2015, and the breakdown in our residency program here at Indiana University is now about 20% of the 5-year program.
One reason for the increase is likely the growth of women in medicine – 60% of doctors under 35 are women, as are more than half of medical school enrollees. I also credit a generational shift in attitudes. The female residents I work with do not anticipate hostility from men in the profession and they expect male patients to give them a fair shake. They may be right – their male contemporaries are more egalitarian than mine – but challenges still exist in our field.
Urologists see both men and women, but the majority of patients are male. Urology focuses on many conditions that only affect men such as enlarged prostate, prostate cancer, and penile cancer. Furthermore, stone disease is more common in men, as are many urologic cancers such as bladder cancer and kidney cancer. So the greatest challenge for young women in urology is to gain acceptance among older men who require examination of their genital region and often need surgery. I’m hopeful that women entering urology today can meet that challenge, largely because we have already made significant progress. For the barriers we still face, leading urologists have blazed a clear path to follow with these three guideposts.
By AMY KRAMBECK, MD
trend toward less invasive procedures, shifting from inpatient to outpatient, has
changed the face of surgery. Industry-changing leaps in technology and surgical
techniques have allowed us to achieve our treatment goals with smaller
incisions, laparoscopy and other “closed” procedures, less bleeding, less pain,
and lower complication rates. As a result, patients who used to require days of
recovery in the hospital for many common surgeries can now recuperate in their
procedures grew from about 50% to 67% of hospitals’
total surgeries between 1994 and 2016,1,2 and outpatient
volume is expected to grow another 15% by 2028,3 with advantages for
patients, surgeons, insurers, and hospitals. In my hospital, where bed space is at a premium, my colleagues and
I were able to make a significant impact by switching minimally invasive
surgery for enlarged prostate, also called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),
from inpatient to outpatient.
Opportunity with an Advanced Technology
about half of men in their 50s, with the prevalence increasing with age to include
about 90% of men 80 and older.4 As a result, BPH surgery makes up a significant
portion of urological procedures in any hospital.
have been performing BPH surgery for 11 years. There are several options,
including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and suprapubic
prostatectomy, both of which require hospital stays and bladder irrigation with
a catheter due to bleeding. Another less frequently utilized surgical option for BPH is holmium
laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). HoLEP causes fewer complications and
requires shorter hospitalization.5 Specifically, its postoperative
morbidity is the lowest among BPH surgeries.5,6,7 HoLEP has the
least bleeding, shortest catheter time, and low rates of urinary tract
infection, plus patients are less likely to require additional treatment for
BPH as they age compared to other available therapies.5,6,7