Our healthcare system is now facing a problem that has plagued business leaders for years: how do you balance consistency and innovation?
The drive for consistency in healthcare is based upon the fundamental observation that physicians across the country treat similar medical conditions in dramatically different fashions. Sometimes, these different approaches are costly, such as using a more expensive treatment when a less expensive approach might be as effective. In other cases, these practice variations are dangerous – failing to provide patients with treatment the evidence suggests is best.
Standardizing the delivery of care — identifying “best practices,” and then insisting physicians follow these guidelines – could, in theory, save money while improving quality, and is the basis of Obama’s healthcare proposal.Continue reading…
Most biomedical research is framed by an outdated view of disease, a linear mind-set that focuses on simple causes rather than complex relationships within dynamic systems. If we are to achieve President Obama’s audacious goal of “a cure for cancer in our time,” we must radically alter the way we think about biology and disease.
Physicians and medical researchers are traditionally taught to consider disease in terms of simple causes and isolated linear pathways. This one-gene-one-disease approach also informs the way most animal models of disease are developed. Technology readily enables researchers to engineer mice with specific molecular defects in one or a small number of genes as an experimental proxy for human disease. While some of these models are informative and reasonably predictive, most are not.
The limitations of animal models are highlighted by results emerging from powerful genomic studies of human diseases ranging from Type 2 diabetes to pancreatic cancer. For these and many other conditions, the cause is not a single defect, or even a handful of defects, but rather, combinations of hundreds of possible defects, each contributing slightly to the overall risk of disease.